Carey school of business arizona state university ned wellman stephen m. Broadly, there are four distinct approaches to leadership, viz. Keywords education, leadership, theories, styles, principles, methods, management, policies and practices. Both the horizontal and vertical axes are from 1 to 9, with 1 being low and 9 being high. Fiedlers contingency theory of leadership with examples. Style theory also works to identify two main behaviors, task and relationship. Blanchard over the last few decades, people in the field of management have been involved in a search for the best style of leadership. Introduction the term leadership is a relatively recent addition to the english language. Situational leadership theory includes four different leadership styles.
Which leadership theoryies says that a leader cannot be trained. It has been in use only for about two hundred years, although the term leader, from which it was derived, appeared as early as a. Situational leadership a summary developed by paul hersey and kenneth h. What matters is the environment in which he works and whether the leader can adapt his personal leadership style to best suit the needs of the situation. The situational theory of leadership suggests that no set of traits is superior, and no leadership style is best. Style leadership refers to behavior and action tendencies held by the leader that led to their individual style of leadership and how it impacted their environments.
Pdf numerous explanations, classifications, theories and definitions about. Situational leadership theory most of the leadership training programs offered today are aimed at helping you discover the leadership style you exhibit, and making you aware of its strengths and weaknesses. Nicholas morris, director of creative arts, creative programming, event management, professional performing artist, choreographer, teacher at grace community church, dallasfort worth regional theatres, dallas baptist university, texas christian university, richland college. System theory, institutional theory, discourse analysis, social identity theory, etc. Some of the influential studies on the style approach include the ohio state university study, the university of michigan study and blake and moutons leadership grid. Two common contingency theories are pathgoal theory and situational theory. The material for this class came from leadership, theory and practice by peter g. Fiedlers contingency theory of leadership states that your effectiveness as a leader is determined by how well your leadership style matches the situation. Yet, the evidence from research clearly indicated that there is no single apppurpose leadership style. Leadership style is a reflection of the combination of high or low task behavior and high or low. Everyone who wants it has the power to become a great leader. Any school of thought that attempts to explain what makes someone a leader.
This article provides an overview on the behavioural approach to leadership. This theory shows the importance of a leader being able to assess the followers situation and see what the leader feels they are able to handle at that given time. Although it is not a fully articulated theory with welldeveloped hypotheses, the trait approach formed the basis. This is a time in history when leaders look less like bosses and more like partners. In addition to enhancing understanding of leadership, style theory is supported by a large body of research. Instead, an effective leader adjusts his style to fit variables of a given situation, including employees, work environment and other situational factors. Normative leadership theories sage publications inc. Situational leadership summary university of florida. Style approach this approach to leadership focuses on the leaders behaviours by identifying what they do and how they act. Style leadership focus on 2 main types of behaviors, 1 task behavior and 2 relationship behavior. Style leadership theory does not focus on who leaders are, but rather on. Situational leadership is an approach to leadership based on the notion that there is no single best leadership style. Style theory refers to three main theories or styles of leadership.
The style approach focuses exclusively on what leaders do and how they act. Fielders contingency theory is the only one that says. The theory is based on the premise that each of us has one and only one leadership style which can be scored on the least preferred coworker lpc scale. They have gone from a very classical autocratic approach to a very creative, participative approach. Since the beginning of civilization, people have sought answers to the questions of who becomes a leader and why. Philosophers, political scientists, and psychologists have. In other words, leaders with this leadership approach require. It also depends on the competence and maturity of the followers. Following this distinction between leadership and management is relevant only when introducing different leaderbehaviors.
One of the most intriguing expressions of human behavior is the leaderfollower phenomenon. Transformational leadership 1 transformational leadership transformational leadership is defined as a leadership approach that causes change in individuals and social systems. Negatives of a situational leadership style your business. Fiedler believed that ones effectiveness to lead depended on their control of the situation and the style of leadership fiedlers, n. This theory is totally based on the ability of the leader, to inspire the work force to put their best in.
This book is designed to introduce and bring together the. Leaders of organizations may not have the force of character to achieve that. According to brolly 1967, blake uses the grid to identify five broad types of managerial style. First, we will discuss how the style approach differs from the trait theory, what researchers discovered in studying leadership behavior, and how the theory works penn state. Actioncentred leadership is perhaps more of an approach than a style, but it is very widelytaught on management and leadership courses and used by leaders globally, particularly in the united kingdom. A recurring leadership style in this paper is the transformational le adership style which, according to northouse 2004, is one of the current approaches to leadership that has been the focus of much research since the early 1980s p. Rhea blanken, 8 common leadership styles, the center for. The theories of contingency recommends that no leadership style is precise as a. Leadership, theories, styles, principles, management, and health science. Being able to adjust your leadership style based on the followers is the ultimate goal. Style theory of leadership organization and administration in.
During the discussion, the question of why this administrator did not send any of his staff. The final theory in style leadership theory is known as the blake and mouton managerial grid or also known as the leadership grid. Style theory also works to identify two main behaviors, task and relationship, which can be learned and cultivated. I had dinner with a local public health administrator at an american public health association annual meeting several years ago. What you do in one situation will not always work in another. However, a situational leadership style is not dictated by the leadership skills of the manager. They take a utilitarian approach, judging the morality of actions based on their outcomes. Chapter 4 leadership theories and models leader, from. These leaders also focus on the end results of their team but are much more flexible in their approach, rewarding good performance and. Culture is influenced by leadership style and consequently, leadership style.
Effective leadership is determined by the leader, the group being led and the tasks that are required to be completed. Style leadership focus on 2 main types of behaviors, 1 task behavior and 2. The style approach to leadership is usually portrayed as a grid the leadership grid or the managerial grid with two axes concern for productionresults task and concern for people relationship and four basic quadrants. The style approach emphasizes the behavior of the leader. Most leadership theories examine the behavior and characteristics that lead to effective leadership, which can be used by others to increase their own leadership abilities. Traits theory, behaviouristic theory, contingency theory and charismatic theories of leadership. Analysis of the pros and cons of different leadership. Actors which also determine leadership behavior focus. Performance outcomes comprehensive, appealing drives leadership training programs weak predictive value the style approach helps understand the complex process of leadership focus on what. This leadership is about being flexible and using the needed leadership style to nurse a given development level of a follower to be successful in a given working environment.
Leadership fielders contingency theory is the only one that says a leaders style is fixed and cannot be trained. Authentic leadership, a relatively new leadership theory, is a construct that incorporates traits, behaviors, styles and skills to promote ethical and honest behavior and thus has greater positive longterm outcomes for leaders, their followers and their organizations. Theory x represents a mainly negative approach to leadership. It was developed in the early 1960s by robert blake and jane mouton. Ross school of business university of michigan jennifer d. The trait approach to leadership was one of the earliest theories of leadership. Rational choice theory, cognitive theories, information processing theories, social. The paternalistic style of leadership is the other side of the coin to the opportunistic style. Additionally, i propose that transitional leadership become a new leadership theory and style for introduction into the professional realm.
Groups, coalitions, leaders roles and positions theories. From the great man theory of the 19th century, to new research on genetic factors underpinning leadership behaviours, theres a wealth of data to examine. Furthermore, the debate continues about whether effective leadership and successful management are synonymous. A short history of leadership theories by gene early our world is changing and so is our understanding of leadership. By gene early our world is changing and so is our understanding of leadership. This is a leadership theory which says that neither a transactional leadership model, nor a transformational model of leadership will work in all situations and all the time. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation.
This approach assumes that one style of leadership behaviour cannot be effective in all situations northouse 20. Leadership style is a reflection of the combination. The university of michigan and ohio state university studies undertook research to identify the core behaviours of effective leadership. As of the leadership journal 2009 the theory of situational leadership asserts that no one style of leadership pertains to all given workplace situations. The contingency theory of leadership was developed by fred fiedler in 1958 during his research of leader effectiveness in group situations fiedlers, n. There is no universal theory of leadership and no precise formula for producing leaders, and the answers are elusive. Traits theory ask people what good leadership is, and its quite likely you will get a response that suggests good leadership can somehow be defined in terms of traits or characteristics. While style theory represents a step forward in understanding leadership, there are some strengths and weaknesses. In this blog, i will be discussing the style approach, also known as the behavioral approach, and how leader behavior affects the followers and the leadership situation. Actioncentred leadership another situational approach to leadership is actioncentred leadership, made famous by john adair. This shift in emphasis began to focus attention on the actual behaviour and actions of leaders as against personal qualities or traits of leaders. Perhaps one of the best ways to answer some of these questions is to describe some of the views about leadership. In its ideal form, it creates valuable and positive change in the followers with the end goal of developing followers into leaders.225 1427 221 747 1315 653 1146 185 594 162 744 935 830 754 210 356 1339 280 248 305 833 646 544 797 296 466 151 425 1201 1167 1227 226 1432 664 1314 727 440 535 311 1328 1345 188